Paper Title
Integration of Heat and Electricity Sectors with Heat Pump Furnished Variable Temperature District Heating

In this work, the novel concept of non-uniform temperature district heating system with decentralized heat pumps and stand-alone heat storage units is proposed. In this system, the temperature within the transmission pipeline is always at the ultra-low level and the heat pumps will increase the temperature to 70oC during a short period a day to provide the domestic hot water need of the consumers. Heat pumps are sized in neighborhood scale, and each heat pump is assigned for a few neighborhoods. By such a design, a strong synergy between the heat and electricity sectors is made, the rate of heat loss is minimal, a high potential for employing low-grade renewable sources is made, and the legionella risk is absolutely zero. These features are all the important characteristics of the smart energy systems. The system is designed and analyzed for a case study. It is demonstrated that the proposed system shows the best performance compared to any other district heating solution. Keywords - District heating; Non-uniform supply temperature; Decentralized heat pump, Stratified storage tank.